Single-Course English 5 ECTS

Operation of electrical energy systems

Overall Course Objectives

The purpose of the course is to equip the students with knowledge of operation, control, and automation of electrical power systems.
The course is divided into two parts. Part one deals mainly with power system operation including renewable energy and different power system control systems that is required to control active power, reactive power, voltage and frequency whilst keep the power system stable with renewable energy sources. In this part students will be shown how to simulate these different control systems using PowerFactory as well as how to use different tools in PowerFactory to check for system stability.
Part two deals with power system automation focusing on the different SCADA communication protocols, e.g IEC 608705-101 & 104, IEC 61850, GOOSE, etc., power system automation systems, e.g. SICAM PAS, and SCADA systems, e.g. SICAM SCC. The students will achieve knowledge about SCADA principles and their relation to power systems.
This background allows the students to analyse existing energy systems and evaluate trends towards intelligent systems and components, i.e. Digital Grid, Grid 4.0 & Smart Grid systems.

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the principle and use of governor-, AVR- and PSS controllers in a power system and how to model them using PowerFactory
  • Understand how to test for transient stability during fault condition on a power system using PowerFactory
  • Understand oscillatory stability, how to determine the eigenvalues using PowerFactory and how a PSS controller can solve oscillatory problems in a power system
  • Understand frequency stability in a power system and how to simulate this using PowerFactory
  • Understand conventional and renewable energy power generation including PV, wind and energy storage and their models in PowerFactory
  • Understand the stability of the power system with renewable energy integration and the impact of the low inertia and how it can be mitigated by use of virtual inertia and virtual synchronous machines
  • Understand voltage stability in a power system and how to use PV & QV curves in PowerFactory to determine the level of voltage stability and the reactive power requirements of a power system
  • Understand the basic principles of contingency analysis and how to simulate this in a power system using PowerFactory
  • Understand the principles of economic dispatch, unit commitment, optimal power flow and the energy market
  • Understand the difference between the different SCADA protocols, e.g. IEC 60870-5-101/104, IEC 61850, Modbus, etc.
  • Understand the basic principles of substation automation using GOOSE and a power automation system, e.g. SICAM PAS and be able to implement basic automation using GOOSE messaging and CFC programming
  • Understand the basic principles of SCADA configuration (“programming”), event recording and alarm handling

Course Content

Part 1:
– Power generation using fossil fuel and renewable energy sources, and energy storage
– Power systems control systems for the control of active power, reactive power, voltage, and frequency – governor controller, automatic voltage regulator (AVR), power system stabiliser (PSS), and station controllers
– Power system stability with regard to frequency and voltage
-Power system stability with renewable energy integration
– Transient stability and oscillatory stability
– Contingency Analysis, PV & QV Curves and PTDF
– Economic dispatch, unit commitment, and optimum power flow
– Market based operation of power supply systems

Part 2:
– SCADA communication protocols, e.g. IEC 60870-5-101/104, IEC 61850, etc.
– Substation automation systems and the GOOSE protocol
– SCADA system programming

Recommended prerequisites


Teaching Method

Lectures, exercises, project group work



Faggruppe: Elektrisk Energi
Elektrisk Energiteknologi: 5. semester (specialisation)

PowerFactory 2020 is available for students via VPN

See course in the course database.





13 weeks


Engineering Technology


DTU Ballerup Campus

Course code 62766
Course type Graduate Engineer
Semester start Week 35
Semester end Week 48
Days Fri 8-12

7.500,00 DKK